PBS has packaged five different American Experience documentaries together as The 1930s. It's a great concept that gathers thematically-linked entries in this exemplary ongoing documentary series for the home market. Each episode, produced individually, exhibits a high standard of journalistic chops in conveying its particular story, always incorporating multiple viewpoints. Archival footage is carefully selected and deeply relevant; narration is informative but not overwhelmingly wordy; and interviewees are consistently incisive and knowledgeable. Each hour-long show rewards repeated viewing, as it can be viewed with equal weight as a well-crafted film, an edifying historical document, and an entertainment piece. I do hope additional decades receive the same treatment as the '30s have here.
Strictly speaking, the subject
of the first documentary did not happen in the decade assigned to it
by the box. However, the Great Crash decisively ended the 1920s
and was the gateway to the Great Depression, which defined the 1930s.
After tracing the development of the modern stock market and the role
of speculation in the crash, this film takes pains to present impressions
from all segments of society who were witness to the crash itself.
These include the children of banker and master speculator Charles Mitchell;
economist and historian John Kenneth Galbraith; traders who were working
the floor of the New York Stock Exchange the day of the crash; contemporary
stock brokers; and more.
Despite its complexity, the
many moving parts of the crash are illustrated here with admirable clarity
for such a brief program. Speculation, practiced in variations
that are now illegal, is identified as the primary culprit, with good
old fashioned American greed backing it all up. The crash has
been studied with increasing interest of late, due to the ongoing recession;
it's interesting that greed, for all the lip service we give to our
comprehension of it, isn't the subject of deeper discussion in the
public discourse. But this documentary's job isn't to address
ingrained cultural values; as a short but substantial overview of a
pivotal moment, it acquits itself extremely well.
The Civilian Conservation Corps
One part of the multifaceted New Deal, FDR's Civilian Conservation
Corps was innovative, effective, and intelligently munificent - in
other words, the type of government program we won't likely ever see
In the early '30s, the Dust
Bowl was causing terrifying disruptions across the country, deepening
the Depression. Farms grew barren. Farmers fled large sections
of the Midwest. Dust storms plowed through the heartland.
Wasteful farming practices had developed into extensive soil erosion,
and the Civilian Conservation Corps would help reclaim the nation's
farmland while putting hundreds of thousands of men to work. Supervised
by the Army and with training provided by soil scientists and engineers,
the CCC established camps for projects in all 48 states, plus Alaska,
Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The CCC men planted
trees, built bridges and fences, fertilized soil, and blazed trails
through the National Park system.
Each man (there were no women
in the CCC) earned a dollar a day, which even in those depressed times
wasn't much. But in the CCC, room and board was covered; so
$25.00 was sent home at the end of each month with $5.00 left over for
R&R. The most valuable part of the experience for these men,
however, were the trade skills they learned in doing their work.
Many of these men came from poor and/or rural backgrounds. They
entered the CCC fairly young, too. So when their service had ended,
they had learned a lifetime's worth of marketable skills. Many
of their interviewees owed their careers to what they learned while
serving with the CCC.
Of the documentaries on this
set, this is probably the most moving. Hearing stories told by
very old men of receiving their first real chance to make something
of themselves - and of the things they gained from the CCC - is
an emotional experience. Government work doesn't often entail
the kind of deep personal changes that occurred within many CCC workers.
Again, as with the previous documentary, we have a subject whose relevance
could not be more pertinent in our own time; although its economic effects
were also important, the CCC was a nationwide morale-booster that also
planted the seeds of what we now know as "environmentalism."
Last summer on a drive from
Providence, Rhode Island, to San Jose, California, I stumbled across
the Hoover Dam. Exhausted after days of travel, I wasn't paying
much attention to maps. A couple of miles out from the dam, I
noticed a couple of signs - and then, there it was. Totally
unprepared for the sight, I was struck speechless. There, in the middle
of a deep canyon, was an immense slab on concrete topped with surprisingly
lovely Deco design work. This third documentary in the set details
the rationale, design, and construction of one of the most impressive
works of civil engineering in the world.
With the western states developing
full-blown metropolises like Los Angeles in the middle of desert wastes,
water and electric power were at a premium. To dam the mighty
Colorado River would provide enough of both resources to a vast territory,
including Phoenix, L.A., and eventually Las Vegas, which at the time
of the dam's construction was just a watering hole. After much
exploration and location scouting, construction began in earnest in
The first major feat of the
construction process was digging and blasting gigantic bypass tunnels
to divert the river below the dam site. This alone entailed enormous
effort and the construction of an almost laughable-looking contraption
called a "drilling jumbo." This was a gigantic truck with
large scaffolds built on top of and around it, so that workers could
stand at its extremities with powerful drills. They'd drill
large holes inside the canyon walls, plant dynamite there, blow out
a section of rock, clear it out, and repeat the process. The dam
itself was "poured" from huge barrels of concrete that were slung
over the site using an incredibly complex - and fast-moving - system
Lots of choice contemporaneous
footage of the dam's construction is contextualized by interviews
with former crew members, historians, and officials from Nevada's
state government. In all, it's a wholly engaging look at the
dam's history, construction, and function.
the Dust Bowl
The experience of the Dust
Bowlers in Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico defines much of
the '30s and the Great Depression. Generations of farming for
profit had resulted in fallow soil that had never been properly tilled
or otherwise cared for. Great winds from the north plains came
down into the region and carried off that dry topsoil in huge storms.
A farmer's livelihood was literally swept away before his eyes.
Add to this a bona fide drought that lasted the better part of a decade,
and it was a true disaster.
Told mostly in the words people
who grew up during that awful time, Surviving the Dust Bowl paints
a vivid picture of people at their wits' end. Life in the Dust
Bowl involved fighting tooth and nail against the encroaching dust,
stuffing window casings with fabric, hoping to prevent the windblown
silt from taking over kitchens and living rooms - all to no avail.
You had to get used to seeing brown when you spit, and feeling grit
in your teeth. There was a feeling of doom across the region.
Government programs alleviated
some of the suffering. The Works Progress Administration put a
lot of farmers to work reclaiming the land, and food was made available
to the destitute. Although many residents clung to their land,
about a quarter of the regional population emigrated, as described in
the songs of Woody Guthrie and the work of John Steinbeck. Eventually
the rain returned, and by that time, the grateful farmers knew much
more about the land they worked than ever before.
The Great Depression gave rise
to a number of unlikely cultural figures whose rough backgrounds provided
the basis for their adulation by a public going through incredible straitened
times. Seabiscuit was a misfit horse who outperformed all expectations,
winning several important races, and wound up a national hero.
Although he was the "grandson"
of the famed Man o'War, Seabiscuit was awkwardly built and as a colt
held no real promise in the eyes of horsemen. Seabiscuit's early
failures at a racehorse were evaporated when his owner, trainer, and
jockey refocused their determination and made him into a champion.
The documentary does a good
job of illustrating how the era gave rise to this odd cultural icon.
The circumstances of the horse, his handlers, and the public all converged
around an era marked by struggle and turmoil - the underdog was king,
or in this case, the underhorse. The story of Seabiscuit remains
inspiring - as evidenced by the recent bestselling book and Oscar-nominated
feature based on his life. This program corrals typically excellent
footage and interviews with interesting experts, including Laura Hillenbrand,
the author of the blockbuster book about the horse.