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Le Samouraï

Le Samouraï
Criterion 306
1967 / Color / 1:85 anamorphic 16:9 / 105 min. / The Godson / Street Date October 25, 2005 / 29.95
Starring Alain Delon, Francois Périer, Nathalie Delon., Caty Rosier, Jacques Leroy
Cinematography Henri Decaë
Production Designer Francois de Lamothe
Film Editor Monique Bonnot, Yo Maurette
Original Music Francois de Roubaix
Written by Jean-Pierre Melville, Georges Pellegrin from a novel by Joan McLeod
Produced by Raymond Borderie, Eugène Lépicier
Directed by Jean-Pierre Melville

Reviewed by Glenn Erickson

Jean-Pierre Melville's popularity has grown exponentially since Criterion began releasing discs of his movies, starting in 2002 with Bob le flambeur. The cowboy-hatted Parisian director loved American cars and was intent on putting his personal French interpretation on American noir. His most famous film is Le Samouraï, a revisit of the old Alan Ladd thriller This Gun for Hire stylized to the point of abstraction. Alain Delon's hired killer remains professionally impassive throughout this cool-surfaced policier. Compared to this icicle, Lee Marvin in the same year's somewhat similar Point Blank is downright emotional.


Pro hit man Jef Costello (Alain Delon) carries out a contract in a nightclub but is seen by a jazz pianist (Caty Rosier). She refuses to identify him in a lineup but the police superintendent (Francois Périer) intuits that Jef is his man and puts pressure on Jane Lagrange (Nathalie Delon), Jef's alibi. Jef's employers think he's a security risk. He thwarts their attempt to liquidate him but realizes he's in a no-win situation. With both the cops and opposing hit men on his back, Jef seeks a way out consistent with his austere personal code.

If Le Samouraï seems a bit formulaic in 2005, it's only because of thirty years' worth of movies influenced by Japanese cinema - one no longer has to be a student of bushido to appreciate the sometimes absurd ways that Yakuza killers and Ronin swordsmen seek honorable destinies. The romantic rituals of samurai films are now firmly established in every country's action genres. Perhaps Sergio Leone started it with his stylized gunslingers carrying out solemn death missions in films like Once Upon a Time in the West; Chinese action director John Woo claims that he became enraptured by Japanese fatalism second-hand, through the movies of Jean-Pierre Melville!

In 1967 the word samurai still carried an aura of mystery, so much so that Melville could invent a fake quote from "The Book of Bushido" for Le Samouraï and escape detection even by Japanese critics. Certain Japanese directors, Seijun Suzuki especially, had already taken the stylized hit man movie to farther extremes, but Melville's picture interpreted the genre for continental audiences. This very non- New Wave movie split the critics while proving immensely popular in Europe. American distributors waited five years to attempt a release, and spoiled that by re-titling the film The Godson. The trailer was laughed off the screen.

This isn't a film with laughs. Melville methodically plays out every scene with the literal cause-and-effect logic preferred by deadpan police procedural films. No room is left for humor, or even names for most of the characters. Melville and co-writer Georges Pelligrin also avoid all but essential dialogue. The stylization carries over into the costuming: Hats were all but gone from the streets of Paris but they're back for Le Samouraï.

In 1967 hit men who behaved like well-oiled automatons were much less of a cliché. Delon's stylized hired killer arises, feeds the bird (echoes of Graham Greene) steals a car, establishes an alibi and assassinates a designated victim with few words and a total lack of emotional display. This allows us to read almost anything we want into our hero's mask-like face; reviewers fixate on a shot where his eyes move a little bit and leap to theorize that Jef is a functioning schizophrenic, or perhaps a murderous Zen master. Chances are that today's audiences will decide that both Jef and the movie are a tongue-in-cheek joke, a riff on movie conventions as perfected by cultural interpreters like Quentin Tarantino. Jean-Pierre Melville almost certainly wanted Le Samouraï to be taken as straight storytelling. He even eliminated a final shot in which Jef, as he turned defeat into an intellectual victory, would laugh in triumph.

Le Samouraï is broken down into a series of dry episodes. The killings are few and far apart with more significance given to elaborate stagings of a lineup, the superintendent's attempt to break Jef's alibi and Jef's use of the metro to shake dozens of detectives off his tail. None of the action is extraordinary and Jef's most effective weapon is his dogged refusal to be diverted from his chosen path. When he realizes he's caught in a bind between cops and crooks, his efforts go toward staying true to his personal code. Even when no longer trying to win, he remains in control of his destiny.

Alain Delon's personal magnetism keeps Jef Costello from becoming a cipher. Star quality must be the determining factor because we certainly don't see him interacting with people in a normal way, or really emoting. His soon-to-be ex-wife Nathalie Delon is sullen as his loyal alibi, and Caty Rosier charms as his mysterious woman of destiny, the woman that critics pinpoint as a symbol of death. Francois Périer's sober policeman lends respect to the side of law and order. Jean-Pierre Melville prefers to make his camera as appropriately 'blank' as his leading character -- he does a tracking-zoom on his first shot and transitions between crooks and cops with a Fritz Lang matched cut, and that's about it for tricks. There is no middle ground in Le Samouraï; audiences will find it either the height of genre profundity or a crashing bore. Genre critics agree that it's a key title in the gangster genre.

Criterion's DVD of Le Samouraï will help steer the undecided in favor of Melville's gangster tale. Disc producer Abbey Lustgarten lines up Melville exponents Rui Nogueira and Ginette Vincendeau for lengthy analytical interview featurettes and pulls together a spread of French television interviews from Melville, Delon, Nathalie Delon, Francois Périer and Caty (Cathy) Rosier. Melville is seen talking to a TV news camera outside the ruins of his film studio, which burned down during the making of Le Samouraï. He blames a business conspiracy that sounds like a good subject for a Melville movie.

A long trailer is also included; the fat insert booklet contains perceptive essays by David Thomson and Melville fan John Woo, and interview excerpts with Melville.

On a scale of Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor, Le Samouraï rates:
Movie: Excellent
Video: Excellent
Sound: Excellent
Supplements: Interviews with Jean-Pierre Melville historians Rui Nogueira and Ginette Vincendeau; archival interview excerpts with Melville and actors Alain Deon, Cath Rosier, Nathalie Delon, and Francois Périer, Trailer
Packaging: Keep case
Reviewed: October 11 , 2005

DVD Savant Text © Copyright 2007 Glenn Erickson

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